hate crime- misogyny

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Misogyny is described as disdain for, disgust for, or prejudice toward girls or women. Racial objectification, brutality against females, disenfranchisement of minorities, belittling of women, male privilege, sexism, androcentrism, hatred, sex discernment, and gender inequality are both manifestations of misogyny. A hate crime is described as a partiality-driven misconduct that occurs when an abuser attacks a victim because of his or her belonging to a certain race or social group. Music is a part of daily life, and it has a significant impact on culture. Hip Hop, also referred to like rap, specifically, depict women and “discuss alcohol and drug use more than any other genre of music” (Davies, 2007). Misogyny in rap music denotes videos, lyrics as well as other features which normalize, justify, glorify or support victimization, exploitation or objectification of women (Oware, 2007). In this piece of work, a critique of concepts and criminologists that are for and against misogyny in rap music as a hate crime will be presented.

Concepts and criminologists that are for misogyny

Some academics stress that rappers employ misogyny in hip hop music to attain profits. While hip hop started as a creator-centered art type of music amongst the Puerto Rican youth as well as poor and working class African American, its change into an international consumer brand has impacted even its handling of females (Johnnetta, 2013). By 1990s, production administrators started to encourage musicians to compose more offensive and violent content at the requests of rap consumers. “In this period the commercialization of Hip Hop for largely white audiences became linked to the overwhelming objectification of women of color in rap lyrics and videos” (Hunter, 2010). In designating the prevalence of image of African American females, particularly in the club prospects in the contemporary rap videos, Hunters (2011) argues that due to these sensual deals are also cultural, section of their demand to purchasers is the strengthening of prevailing descriptions concerning Latina and black females as well as the concomitant figurative safeguard of white feminineness through its nonexistence in illustrations. Currently, women are hired by rappers to act as sexual objects in their music videos. By analyzing Hunter (2011) argument, misogyny cannot be viewed as a hate crime since women are paid to act as sexual objects in rap songs and videos.

Nevertheless, some individuals perceive that misogyny has always existed. Bynoe (2010) depicts that women are in full charge of their sexuality and bodies. “Most male singers pit the self-governing women against the rider or gold digger narrative when they address individuality in their content” (Bynoe, 2010). In rap music, ladies are infrequently perceived as the leaders; In contrary, they are commonly regarded as sexual objects and individuals who are visually and sexually amenable and attractive to their companion’s disloyalties (Bynoe, 2010). In opposition, a gold digger uses her bodily points to influence men and to steal from them. Since women are not the targets but the offenders in this scenario, misogyny cannot be viewed as a hate crime.

In 2015, Toronto’s North By Northeast music event was delayed due to misogynistic images and lyrics by a United States rapper Branson. The hip hop star was further denied stage performance in the Yonge-Dundas square festival that was held the same year. A month later, a petition was initiated by Erica Shiner, a Toronto local claiming that the festival organizers should drop Bronson from the accusation of hate speech in his music content. The application quoted misogynistic and violent issues of his music and denounced his lyrics as hate speech (Rollmann, 2015).

Concepts and criminologists that are against misogyny

“Exploitation of women in hip-hop culture has become an accepted part of it for both the artists and audiences alike, and many critics blame the music without looking any deeper” (Ayanna, 2013). Some women even started to perceive themselves in the same way society has been recognizing them. Music has an immense impact on the way people think. Most rap songs and videos precisely spread, endorse, and preserve undesirable imageries of African American females (Moody-Ramirez and Lakia, 2016). All women, particularly black women are perceived in the prevalent rap beliefs as sex objects (Fileborn, 2018). Most rap videos which are frequently played today displays lots of dancing ladies, commonly adjoining some few men and dressed wickedly and the cameras directed to their half-naked bodies (Ayanna, 2013). It is depressing that these imageries and videos influence young girls to the point of admiring such a lifestyle. In Ayanna (2013) perspective, misogyny can be viewed as a hate crime since rappers targets women to appear on their music videos as sex objects due to their affiliation to the female gender.

Adam and Fuller (2006) argue that rappers have suppressed undesirable stereotypes concerning women which are predominant in the American community, after witnessing female being handled poorly while growing up. Weitzer and Kubrin (2009) recognized five usual misogynistic subjects in hip hop lyrics. These comprise of mistrust of ladies, the legitimization of viciousness contrary to females, endorsement of pimping and prostitution, sensual objectification of ladies and offensive shaming and naming of women. Sexual objectification of females is the most usual misogynistic subject in rap music. Thus, in Weitzer and Kubrin (2009) viewpoint, misogyny in rap music is a hate crime. In a study, Weitzer and Kubrin (2009) identified that 67 percent of the assessed hip hop content sexually portrayed females. In music containing misogyny, ladies are labeled by use of insulting names chicken-heads, hoes and bitches. These abuses seek to degrade women and keep them in the place which the society and rappers have placed them. The surprising fact is the men are praised for exploiting and abusing women (Suzanne, 2012). This is a misconduct where the rappers women victims due to their affiliation to the female gender, thus a hate crime in nature.

In contemporary society, by endorsing women objectification to trade more records, media firms propagate misogyny and public homophobia. Even though the future of rap music cannot be predicted, it appears as if the culture which was initially formulated to reduce fight for power and violence will become more of a corporate sector that prioritizes paybacks over individual self-worth (Fileborn, 2018).

Conclusion

Misogyny has been labeled as the dislike for, hatred of or bias against girls or women. Misogyny in hip hop music denotes the videos, lyrics as well as other aspects that regularize, justify, adore or support oppression, misuse or objectification of women. A hate crime is designated as partiality-driven misbehavior which occurs when an offender targets a victim due to his or her connection to a specific race or social group. Various criminologists have different perceptions concerning whether misogyny in hip hop music is a hate crime or not as depicted in this paper. Some criminologists and concepts support while others oppose the perception of misogyny in hip hop music as a hate crime.

References

Adams, Terri M.; Fuller, Douglas B. (2006). “The Words Have Changed, but the Ideology Remains the Same: Misogynistic Lyrics in Rap Music.”  Journal of Black Studies. 36 (6): 938–957. doi:10.1177/0021934704274072

Ayanna. (2013). “The Exploitation of Women in Hip-hop Culture By Ayanna.” Exploitation of Women in Hip-Hop Culture.

Bynoe, Yvonne (2006). Encyclopedia of rap and hip-hop culture. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Cole, Johnnetta B. (2013). “What Hip-Hop Has Done To Black Women.” Ebony 62.5 (2007): 90. Middle Search Plus.

Fileborn, B. (2018, April 18 ). Online harassment of women driven by misogyny, fear and a need for power. Retrieved from News: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-04-18/why-men-abuse-women-online/9666900

Hunter, Margaret (2011). “Shake It, Baby, Shake It: Consumption and the New Gender Relation in Hip-Hop.” Sociological Perspectives. 54: 15–36. 

 Kelly, Suzanne (2012). Women: –Images and Realities. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. pp. 102–104

Mia, Moody-Ramirez, M, Scott, Lakia (2016). “Rap Music Literacy: A Case Study of Millennial Audience Reception to Rap Lyrics Depicting Independent Women.” Journal of Media Literacy Education. 7 (3). 

Oware, M. (2007). “A “Man’s Woman”?: Contradictory Messages in the Songs of Female Rappers, 1992-2000″. Journal of Black Studies. 39 (5): 786–802

Rollmann, H. (2015, July 20). When Do Misogynistic Lyrics Become Hate Speech? Retrieved from Pop matters: https://www.popmatters.com/195509-when-do-misogynistic-lyrics-become-hate-speech-2495506200.html

Susan Davies, et al. (2013) “Images Of Sexual Stereotypes In Rap Videos And The Health Of African American Female Adolescents.” Journal Of Women’s Health (15409996) 16.8 (2007): 1157-1164. Academic Search Complete.

Weitzer, Ronald; Kubrin, Charis E. (October 2009). “Misogyny in rap music: a content analysis of prevalence and meanings.” Men and Masculinities. Sage. 12 (1): 3–29. doi:10.1177/1097184X08327696

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