A theory refers to a structure or supposition of ideologies that explain something, especially those that are based on concepts that are independent of the concept explained. Philosophy refers to an ethical collection of doctrines, values, or concepts that describe how society ought to act while providing a cultural and political blueprint of a social order emerging from an organization, political movement, or community.
Differentially, definitions contain experienced conceptions, while philosophies are anchored in people’s opinions or values in the culture. Theories can also be proved by proof if they are wrong; ideologies, though, if they are real or incorrect, are difficult to substantiate.
The States These are sovereign and powerful governmental structures used to enforce rules over specific territories. States are the ones used to create nations as opposed to nations creating states. States and the federal government share powers, create, and enforce laws. On the international sphere, states seek to focus on shared values and norms such as diplomacy and order.
Treaty of Wesphalia
The doctrine was recognized as Treaty of Wesphalia and was signed in the year 1648 ending a 30-year war in European states where they agreed to have respect for each other’s territorial integrity. This treaty enabled several states to have independence and secure autonomy while others gained cash.
Types of Democracies
Two types of democracies including direct and indirect; indirect democracy is also termed as representative democracy where people elect others to represent and make decisions for them. Direct democracy is where citizens make decisions for themselves through direct voting. Examples of these democracies include a local ballot for direct democracy and Electoral College for indirect democracy respectively.
Principles of Democracy
According to John Locke, democracy should be founded on human rights including liberty and rights to property. Thomas Hobbes noted that all people should be allowed to do whatever they want and that unilateral disarmament is total folly. Similarly, the rule of law should be upheld in all situations, it is noted that people must observe and practice their rights guided by the law. Social compact entails the political rights principles, which tend to lean towards discourse on inequalities. Democracy should be founded on political reforms to ensure that rights are equally served to the people. The Leviathan concept of democracy also focused on liberty and total freedom for the people to select individuals that represent them.
Constitutional principles and practices of the U.S. Constitution
The US Constitution incorporates several principles and practices including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, assembling and forming associations as well as keeping and bearing arms. Besides, the Constitution encompasses freedom to religion provides for civil rights and criminal rights.
Federalists and the Anti-Federalists
Federalists are individuals that favored ideologies of a stronger national government while the anti-federalists advocated for a strong state government. Federalists sought to ratify the US Constitution, take power from states, and instituted checks to protect the citizens’ rights. They never advocated for bill of rights and wanted a stronger president. The anti-federalists, on the other hand, advocated for powerful states, demanded for bill of rights and never wanted a national bank.
Major Constitutional Amendments
Amendments 1 to 10 constituting the bill of rights
Amendment 11 instituting the immunity regarding states
Amendment12,17, 20, 22, 27, and 26 implicating presidents, members of congress, and senators
Amendment 13, 14, and 15 aimed at the reconstruction of the Civil War
Amendment 16 tailored to Income Tax
Amendments 18 and 21 shortening the reign of prohibition
Amendments 19, 23, 24, and 26 implicating voter’s restrictions and rights
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