Indigenous tribes, cultures, countries, and clans are perceived to be native to the land they reside in, as opposed to imperial states and societies that have migrated from Europe and other cores of the empire. As a result of this resistance and place-based life, as well as the consciousness of being in struggle with the objective of resisting the disinheritance and humiliating reality of colonialism by foreign people, indigenous people have become profoundly distinct from the rest of the world. therefore, Indigenous is a characteristic built, wrought, and lived in the politicized setting of modern colonialism (Melvin and Penny 38)
Indigenous people differ with their colonizing societies in many ways i.e. regarding their economic, political, cultural as well as their relationships. However, they strive to survive as discrete people based on their extraordinary inheritance, the manner in which they are attached to their native soil as well as their lifestyle that is mutual among all indigenous people, and the fact that their survival is broadly lived and established by the acts of their survival opposite to their lifestyle of the colonizing nations’ attempts to eliminate them physically, culturally, and politically (Palys 6). Therefore, it is a challenge to be an indigenous person in both psychic and cultural sense because it creates the critical issue that Indigenous people encounter nowadays especially in this age of modern colonialism.
In the 19th century, the brisk rate of social and economic development had an overwhelming consequence on indigenous people living in Canada. Specifically, it interfered with indigenous people’s unique affiliation with the terrain, a bond that constantly delineated their interior characteristics as well as spirituality. Due to increased extreme anxiety, some native leaders confronted political powers for assistance. However, their appeals did not bear any fruits. In contrast, the colonial province of Canada espoused legislation in 1857 that was meant to promote the continuing civilization of the Indian ethnic groups. Therefore, currently in Canada, several Indigenous people embrace the government of Canada’s label towards “aboriginal” alongside the concomitant and partial concept of postcolonial justice outlined in the institutional form of the nation (Taiaiake and Corntassel 598). Actually, this distinctiveness is entirely a formation for the nation that is influential to the nation’s effort to steadily include Indigenous ways of life into its own legitimate system and politics since Canada got its independence from Great Britain. This procedure began in the mid twentieth century and ended in 1982 when Canada got its constitution.
Consequently, the government of Canada thought it was its responsibility to educate and care for the indeginous people under its leadership. Its consideration was that their best opportunity to excel was to gain knowledge on English and espouse Canadian’s ways of life as well as Christianity. This meant that after gaining this skills, the indeginious people would transfer their espoused ways of life to their children and as a result their traditions would decrease or be eradicated totally in some generations. As a result, the Canadian regime came up with a policy known as “aggressive integration” that was to be taught in churches, schools funded by governments that were later referred to as residential schools. This is because the government believed that children were easier to narture than adults, and the idea of boarding schools was the superlative way of preparing the children for life in the typical society.
The residential schools that were built were run by the federal government, under the department of Indian affairs, and attending school was a compulsory whereby agents were engaged by the government to make sure that all indigenous children attended school everyday. The government’s assumptions were that the residential schools education would make it difficult for indigenous culture to become accustomed in the modern society (A history of residential schools in Canada). Therefore, it was alleged that indigenous children could thrive if they absorbed the typical Canadian society by speaking French and English as well as espousing Christianity. For example, learners were not allowed to speak their mother-toungue or practice their traditions, and if they were found doing any of those, they would undergo brutal punishment.
For many years, students in residential schools lived in poor conditions and suffered both emotional and physical abuse. On the other hand, the students did not experience the family normal life because they spent ten months a year in school away from their families and some even remained in school the whole year (Russel 25). However, even if parents wished to complain they had no knowledge of the school curriculum because everything was written in English, and siblings in the same school were not allowed to see each other. Besides that, when the students had a chance to go vist their families back at home, they realized that the life they had adapted in school was different from the one back in their community making them feel out-of-place. They were incapable of helping their parents to do family chores because the skills taught in school were substandard. This made them feel embarrassed of their native customs.
Argue for ways in which indigenous languages can be used as a tool of resistance/empowerment of indigenous peoples.
For a government to do away with a language, it has to get rid of all speakers of that language. The regime of Canada instigated attempts to eliminate all languages that were in existence since 1800s – 1950s. This fact was acknowledged by Indeginous people, scholars and supporters of social justice in the previous 40 years. The establishment of residential school system was among the first programs that the Canadian regime started with the support of the churches such as the Anglican, the Presbyterian, and the Roman Catholic to eradicate Indeginous people’s ways of life and languages in Canada. However, regardless of the attempts, some indeginous group managed to keep their languages and traditions and they remained vital to them. A number of children became adults knowing their culture as well as speaking their language while others did not.
Models of Native Education
Indigenous resistanceto education led to an immediate several choices all of which were influenced by the social and economic past connection with the ordinary community, governmental determination and the accessibility of resources. The diversity was perceived as decreasing within a range of a solid emphasis on indigenous practice on one side to that of making children to be prosperous in the modern world on a different side. The native resistance had influence in the choice for defining the learning which was founded on specific dream that the community had (Donald M. Taylor et a1 48). The weight was put on providing education on the traditional languages to the point that is still practical or schooling as an additional language. This led to the emphasis of coming up with programme resources that best characterise the skill of the children. The governmental structures may be reformed to include the opinion of the native parents. Guidelines were also approved that control the origin of the teachers who teach in the schools. The choices influenced the coming up new teaching experiences and knowledge structures. The choices that were chosen included a huge move from the modern schooling custom and the results became a schooling that give an overview of indigenous believes and principals over the modern culture. Moreover, the dreams of the society is seen in teachers teaching programs that are normally related to the indigenous schooling, and it will differ depending on the range of the native practice.
Preserving the indigenous languages helped to some extend the extreme societies who decided to be the authority over their own teaching modules. Some of this communities did not bother to look for credentials from the university because they did not want to be bound by external factors. This was as a a result of a yearning to concentrate very solidly on the traditional language and custom. Most models of indigenous schooling fell someplace in between the above extremes. For Instance curriculums were planned specifically for indigenous students who were based on campus for such curriculum they were conducted by native or modern academics, always to tend contain a solid pan-native concentration.
Standards of education
Native language had large influence on the standards of education in canada. With this it forced the the native and the indigenous community and the government officials of the modern society who give field based traditionally important knowledge for inherent teachers training for the native trainees to be concerned about the parities in the ethics of training for the native tutors and non- native tutors (Donald M. Taylor et a1 50). The response to this concerns were that the parities existed because the reference values of each were very different. When admiting students into the diffrent fields founded by tutor schooling programme, inherent students it was dicovered that they always have a distinct established skills as compared to the non- native students. Because of this abilities and skills traditional tutors more often are allowed to join the education program as advanced trainees because older people in the society are viewed as examples of custom culture.
The Inherent students join the programme with no education experience just like ordinary counterparts, mainly because they, themselves, were the product of ineffective conventional education and schooling. Once acknowledged by the program, Native tutors are obligated to operate in an alternative language, if the linguistic of tutoring is English or French.
Focusing on Indeginous-teacher based education programs have made sevaral communities recognize the programs as key issues that will change the school environment for their children. The Indeginous people’s interest is entirely on field-based programs that will be able to customize program elements so as to meet the specific requirements of Indeginous communities. Generally, before the communities were given local authority, schools followed specific model of education. Community members together with parents and leaders were fully aware of the eradication of their cultures, heritage, and languages, this resulted to rapid demands for greater changes in these localities. Hence, once the field-based teacher education programs were instigated in those communities, parents and leaders were determined to look for prospective teachers who acquired strong traditional background such as being fluent in in their native language as well as having skills on surviving and hunting. With this in mind, communities are looking forward to drawing the attention of individuals that will be willing to assist safeguard the traditional information and in return pass it over to the future generations so as to prevent it from diminishing.
“A history of residential schools in Canada” FAQs on residential schools, compensation and the
Truth and Reconciliation Commission.CBC News- Radio Canada. May 16, 2008. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/a-history-of-residential-schools-in-canada-1.702280
Donald M. Taylor et al. TOWARD FULL EMPOWERMENT IN NATIVE EDUCATION:
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Russel Lawrence Barsh. Canada’s Aboriginal peoples: Social Integration or Disintegration?
Department of Native American Studies: The University of Lethbridge, Canada. Available at http://www3.brandonu.ca/cjns/14.1/barsh.pdf