Ethics-Duty Theory

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Kant believes that we as human beings have a moral obligation to cultivate our talents. On the basis of his view, he says that voluntary homelessness is incorrect, because nobody would choose to live on the streets. Moreover, Kant argues that our human motives need us to fairly think about how we can comply, because those who live voluntarily on the streets is a wrong decision
Wolff claims that the moral philosophy rule tradition is nature’s universal law. It was believed that the bond created by improving our bodies and minds and helping people respectively. Moreover, he included that in our quest for perfection in our nature as human beings, we honor God.
3. Kant’s view are that morality cannot arise from authoritarian commands or from God; instead, it comes from the authority of human reason, which is the only applicable guideline. As such, no one, including authoritarian mandates can be the author of molarity. In essence, this is a practical necessity and that does not have an origin in will.
4. Essentially there are two things that influence our intentions and will are rational obligations and selfish inclination. Considering that most of our motives are in the selfish class, then our actions cannot be termed as moral. However, Kant notes that rational decision is the legitimate motive in moral decision making as it involves necessity for human beings.
5. To efficiently determine the moral status of given actions, Kant provides a procedure through his categorical imperative theory. First, a person takes a particular acction; second, the individual looks at the guiding principle behind such an act. Thirdly, one reflects on what that maxim would be in case everyone followed it as a universal rule (Fieser 177). Finally, if it is reasonable or not, then the person can accept it as moral or reject it as immoral respectively.
6. The formulae of law of nature suggests that one should act as if the guiding principle of your action is a universal law through your will. If you borrow money with the promise to return it, and you know that you are you will not return, such a maxim sprouts contradictions. As such, if the deceit was followed universally, the concept of promise-keeping will cease to exist among human beings.
7. In essence, there is a difference between an end and a means. On the one hand, a means is only valuable as a tool to help to achieve or complete another thing. On the contrary, an end is inherently valued for what it is, and not for what it enables us to accomplish. The adverse aspect relating to the end formula itself is to avoid treating individuals as instruments, which is only a minimum obligation (Fieser 181). The positive aspect is undertaking to treat individuals as ends by supporting them to retain their dignity.
8. The internal contradiction scenario described by Kant is that of deceitful promises, which contradicts the rules of keeping the concept itself. Also, the example of an external contradiction as indicated by Kant in the application of his categorical imperative theory is the fact that wasting a talent is contrary to the rational obligation of human beings to develop their talents.
9. A maxim is essentially a guiding principle or general rules, according to which he bases his actions. Moreover, it is considered as the intentions behind certain acts that an individual undertakes. The key to constructing a maxim is determining the motives of our actions. However, it is often hard to effectively establish the secret incentives of actions.
10. Regarding the formulae of the law of nature, Kant made two major modification; first was universalization and the second was identifying contradictions in the given examples. After modifying examples given by Kant, this formulae now tells us that if an action violates a moral duty, then it should be considered morally wrong (Fieser 187).

Work Cited
Fieser, James. Moral philosophy through the ages. James Fieser, 2000: 173-189.

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