Essay on Fallacies as a Theme

A fallacy is a type of argument that contains a logical flaw. A fallacy can be based on a lack of information or a lack of relevance. Both sets of fallacies will be examined in this paper.
The Relevance Fallacy
The relevance fallacy is based on a statement’s input into a previous declaration. If an account is important to the other declaration, it is considered relevant. This is because it provides some justification for believing that a second statement is correct or incorrect.
Because Judith and her husband are both 6 feet tall, their son is likely to be 6 feet tall as well. This leads to a positive relevance fallacy. The second statement can be seen to be true since deductive reasoning enables a person to come up with the conclusion.
“The sky is always blue. Thus, the next American president will also be a Democrat. This statement creates an illogical relevance. It is based on a fallacy that cannot be well substantiated (Gregory Bassham).

Fallacy of Incomplete Information
These fallacies exist out of our reasoning mistakes. Here, we create premises which appear to be relevant in conclusion but which fail to give sufficient evidence to support such a conclusion. Example; there is no proof that the lights of my refrigerator go off after closing its door. Thus, it is rational to suppose that they do not go off. This problem creates a reasoning gap which makes a person conclude as he wishes. Since it is not possible to see the inside of a fridge when closed, the conclusion generated as per the statement is a fallacy of incomplete information. The conclusion is based on an appeal towards ignorance.
We can also consider the statement; “From the 1960s out of wedlock births, abortions, promiscuity, and divorce have all sharply risen. Without a doubt, there needs to be the restoration of prayers in schools.” The statement is made out of lack of adequate evidence that these vices are as a result of lack of prayers. Such statements can be viewed as fallacies of incomplete information. The conclusion is made out of a desired questionable cause (Gregory Bassham). 
Works Cited
Gregory Bassham, William Irwin, Henry Nardone, and James M. Wallace. Critical Thinking, A student’s Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

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