Empire of Byzantine

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Iconoclasm is the hostility made towards visual symbols and image destruction. This was ttypical during the Byzantine Empire. Iconoclasm was a positive move since it looked toward integrating both the Jewish and Islamic population. Icons could also lead to the distraction of worshippers from their spiritual undertakings, additionallyn to promoting idolatry. Diverse religious scriptures having symbols of religious scriptures are a move towards replacing God and should, then, be opposed. This was a good move straight towards eliminating the worshiping of idols and images.
The change in iconoclasm from shepherd to royalty while the Byzantine era was meant to uplift the status of Jesus from a servant to a figure to be worshipped and respected.
An iconic image refers to an image that embodies or expresses a tangible idea or concept. An example is a face if Christ that has alpha and omega on either side. The narrative, on the other hand, refers to an image recounting a story’s event, which may be either fictional or factual. An example is the tapping of a rock by St. Peter, which leads to the flow of water.

Basilicas were mainly built using longitudinal plans of the building, a transept, apse, a clerestory, side aisles, nave, portals, narthex also known as entrance porch and an atrium. They were mainly the church of the pope and often represented his influence.

During the Byzantine, images were worshiped, prayed to and used in manuscripts. They were considered a channel of communication between the worshippers and the individuals they represented (Beckwith 178). The main reason for their suppression is that they were considered inappropriate in the context of religion and led to idolatry. Also, the images were a scapegoat of the struggles the Byzantine Empire was undergoing.

An ambulatory is a polygonal or semicircular aisle that encloses a straight-ended sanctuary or an apse. It was common during the Byzantine Empire as well as the early Christian churches. Initially, it was used in processions while undertaking religious activities.

A narrative image describes events sourced from a story. The events recounted may be fictional or factual.

Catacombs are subterranean subways that are human-made reserved for purposes of religion. It was usually used as the cemetery and consisted of tunnels on different levels. Catacombs had various rooms known as cubicula and incorporated burial niches, sarcophagi, and urns.

An apse is a large polygonal or semi-circular niche that overhangs from a building’s end-wall. This is where the altar is contained in Christian churches. It was first used during the Roman Empire as the holder of the deity statue in the temple. An apse was a standard component of churches in the Early Christian era generally placed at the basilica’s west end.

Central-plan churches were initially utilized as tombs and later become known for their baptisteries. They were mainly erected on top of martyrs; graves and were characterized by a vertical axis through the dome from the center, which symbolized ‘vault of heaven’.

Ancient civilization was common in this region, which is presently known as Tuscany with involved exquisite art, included building fortified cities, had extensive networks of trade in addition to having a deep connection with the Romans and the Greeks. Despite these deep connections, the culture had obvious differences making it unique in its way. Their family structures are a striking part of the culture of women having equal rights to their male counterparts, which is a huge deviation from the Roman culture. Women would attend social and public gatherings, which was uncommon in many cultures at the time. The differences in culture led to Etruscans being labeled as immoral and decadent something that did faze the Etruscans thereby never considered changing their culture (Tuck 12). Despite the obvious differences in other cultures, the Etruscan often viewed themselves as civilized and ahead of time.

In addition, the Etruscans celebrated achievements as well as calamities in similar manners. The holding of banquets was the primary form of social entertainment whether they were celebrating the success of the military of mourning the dead. Despite the Etruscans being civilized and way ahead of others, nature with which the culture ended is surprising. The culture had multiple trade networks across the Mediterranean and influenced several cultures around them through artisanship and art.

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