Diabetic Therapy Compliance

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Three longitudinal findings on family and social support on diabetes care are discussed in this article. First, it looks at Miler and DiMatteo that looked at the impact of family and social support on diabetic therapy adherence. It focuses on the observational studies examined by the scientists, emphasizing family and social support. The power is on the critical purpose of diabetic medicine, which is to maintain proper metabolic control and reduce the risk of health problems with the aid of family members. Also, the paper discusses the relationship between social support from family and friends and diabetes self-management. Lastly, it explores a study by Birjand University of Medical Sciences on the impact of members on diabetic’s patient’s adherence to the medication program.

Introduction
About 30.3 million Americans have diabetes, of which 1.25 million are adults and children with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, the prevalence is high among American adults aged 65 years and above, that is 12 million adults, which is at 25.2%. Additionally, each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013). Therefore, increased family and social support can enhance medication adherence and reduce the glycemic level. Notably, glycemic control is one of the major objectives of the treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. If the glycemic control is poor then managing type 2 diabetes will be a challenge, with a majority of patients falling short of the glycemic control marks. As such, family and social support improve the medication adherence, keeping the glycemic levels in check.
The possible causes of type 1 diabetes are viruses such as rotavirus and mumps, which cause the T cells to turn against the beta cells, thus, leading to insufficient production of insulin. Also,genes may trigger type 1 diabetes in an individual. For instance, in the U.S, Caucasians are more vulnerable than Hispanic and African-Americans. On the other hand, the possible causes of type 2 diabetes are factors such as consumption of refined carbohydrates, stress, and high cholesterol. In general, scheduling of regular physicals and keeping cholesterol levels under control are possible solutions to manage the diabetes menace.
In this article, I explore three online article on managing the diabetes menace. First, I shall look at the role of family/social support by Matteo and Miller, and the importance of family and friend supporting diabetes self-management. Finally, I will explore the effect of family aid in improving behaviors on anti-diabetic treatment.
Miller, T., & DiMatteo, R. (2013, November 6). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved from Importance of family/social support and impact on adherence to diabetic therapy: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825688/
I chose the article because it provides vital information on how family and social support enhances the compliance of diabetes therapy. Most importantly, it highlights the significance of family support on medication adherence by diabetes patients.
About 24 million Americans are affected by diabetes mellitus, thus, making it one of the prevalent continuous conditions (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013). Precisely, diabetes mellitus is regarded to be the main cause of blindness, stroke, heart illness, kidney failure and Lower limb amputation among American adults (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013). Also, it highlights that the main objective of medication for diabetic patients is to keep appropriate metabolic regulation and minimize the risks of health complexities. The obedience to medication for both type 1 and 2 diabetes comprise of regular exercise routine, regular eye examination, everyday insulin injections and complicated dietary restraints. Therefore, a patient’s endeavors to uphold and obey accordingly to diabetes management requirements usually take place in social settings that can change social and family dynamics. Further, the research piece highlights that backing from friends and family enhance self-esteem and optimism, which caution the stress of being unwell and lower patient despondency (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013). Additionally, social backing influences the ability of a patient to adapt and live with diabetes.
Further, the article highlights that the emotional and practical support from family and friends has a positive impact on worldwide measures of diabetes in diabetic patients. For instance, a meta-analytic inspection of 122 experimental studies revealed that obedience was higher by 27% when diabetic patients had support from family and friends available to them (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013). Cohesion is 3 times high in families who accept, are warm and close the differences of adherence to medication, compared to non-cohesive families. Moreover, living with others has a positive impact on adherence; it reveals that for adults r=0.08, P˂0.05 (Miller & DiMatteo, 2013).
The article provides specific practical support from family that enhances the diabetic therapy. For instance, it highlights that emotional support and living together with the diabetic patients has a positive impact on adherence. Moreover, it provides the understanding of the importance of family to diabetic patients; they help the patient to monitor the glycemic levels accordingly and maintain the schedule to regular exercises. However, this article relies predominately on the results from other researchers with no samples of diabetic patients being examined independently by the authors.
Tabasi, H., Madarshahian, F., Nikoo, M., & Mahmoudirad, G. (2014, November 25). BioMed Central. Retrieved from https://jdmdonline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40200-014-0113-2
Family and friend social support, FSS, is an area that is related to diabetes self-management, DSM. Actually, the study reiterates that social support is key to self-management since DSM is a complicated social reality. Therefore, comprehending the role played by social backing together with self-care behavior is necessary for the development of medical standards of care practices. Most importantly, the study assesses the interrelation between FSS and DSM as influenced by gender and ethnicity with approval from the University’s Institutional Review Board (Vaccaro, Exebio, Zarini, & Huffman, 2014). Mainly, it considers a sample of 110 Africa-Americans, 121 Haitian and 174 Cuban, that is AA, HA, CA accordingly (Vaccaro, Exebio, Zarini, & Huffman, 2014). Each participant received a Diabetes Care profile questionnaire, which was validated, from the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training center, MDRTC (Vaccaro, Exebio, Zarini, & Huffman, 2014). As such, the tangible and emotional support by friends and or family was measured on a composite scale. On the other hand, diabetes education was taken as a yes/no, with yes response meaning that one had diabetes education. The analysis was computed using the IBM SPSS Statistic version 19.0. The results revealed that diabetes education was positively correlated with diabetes self-management, r=0.208, P˂ 0.0001. Further, 46.2% HA felt uncomfortable with their relatives suffering from diabetes compared to 25.6% of CA, 36.1% of HA were reassured by their families regarding their condition compared to 32.2% of AA and 37.1% of CA (Vaccaro, Exebio, Zarini, & Huffman, 2014). Additionally, 35.3% of AA agreed to the fact that their families listen to them when they talk about their condition compared to 35.3% HA (Vaccaro, Exebio, Zarini, & Huffman, 2014). As a result, higher DSM was associated with FSS, thus, FSS benefits diabetes control. Notably, this information is reliable since it received approval from the necessary authority, which is the University’s Institutional Review Board. The information provided by the research is vital as it provides that increased health education among family and friends enhances the treatment of diabetes, with family members encouraging the diabetic patients to stick to the treatment plan and helping them monitor their condition.
Vaccaro, J., Exebio, J., Zarini, G., & Huffman, F. (2014, February 11). Science and Education Publishing. Retrieved from http://pubs.sciepub.com/jnh/2/1/1/index.html#
I chose the article as it helps in the development of a global perspective on diabetes. First, glycemic control is one of the primary objectives of medication for patients suffering from diabetes. There has been a challenge in the management of type 2 diabetes because of poor glycemic control. Notably, family support is one of the effective factors on the glycemic control. The article highlights that a family member can inhibit the detrimental outcomes of stress on glycemic control by providing appraisal, emotional and informational support to the patient. Moreover, patients from supportive families have higher medication obedience, reduced level of stress and healthier behaviors. Therefore, the involvement of family members improves the diabetes management. Most importantly, the study examines 91 diabetic patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who were attending a diabetes clinic affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences, who resided with their families in 2013 (Tabasi, Madarshahian, Nikoo, & Mahmoudirad, 2014). They were selected randomly with the family members considered spell out as those over 18 years. Also, the patients included were over 30 years old with type 2 diabetes history of more than 1 year (Tabasi, Madarshahian, Nikoo, & Mahmoudirad, 2014). Information about the family member and the patients’ demographic data was collected using a questionnaire. Additionally, the data collected was analyzed using SPSS software version 16, which is a statistical package for social science, with P≤0.05 (Tabasi, Madarshahian, Nikoo, & Mahmoudirad, 2014). Indeed, the results revealed that the diabetes therapy increased due to family support with patients who occasionally forgot to take medication significantly dropping from 91.1% to 22.2%, while those who were bothered about maintaining the medication schedule having a drop of 4.5% (Tabasi, Madarshahian, Nikoo, & Mahmoudirad, 2014). Thus, this proves that social and family backing is vital in managing diabetes therapy. The research was carried out by BirjandUniversity of Medical Sciences, which is a reputable institution, thus, the information can be depended upon. Additionally, the information clearly analyses the impact family support has on diabetes treatment with a significant drop in patients who occasionally forgot to take medication, giving a reflection on how family health education impacts on the treatment of diabetes.
Conclusion
Diabetes is a chronic condition affecting a majority of adults and children across the globe. Approximately, 30.3 million American adults are suffering from diabetes with adults above 65 years old at a higher risk due to the consumption of refined carbohydrates, stress and high cholesterol intake, which make individuals vulnerable to the condition. However, it can be avoided by scheduling regular physicals and keeping the cholesterol and blood pressure levels normal. Therefore, family and social support on health is key to enhance diabetic treatment and control, since the condition affects a substantial number of households worldwide.

References
Miller, T., & DiMatteo, R. (2013, November 6). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved from Importance of family/social support and impact on adherence to diabetic therapy: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825688/
Tabasi, H., Madarshahian, F., Nikoo, M., & Mahmoudirad, G. (2014, November 25). BioMed Central. Retrieved from Impact of family support improvement behaviors on antidiabetic medication adherence and cognition in type 2 diabetic patients: https://jdmdonline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40200-014-0113-2
Vaccaro, J., Exebio, J., Zarini, G., & Huffman, F. (2014, February 11). Science and Education Publishing. Retrieved from The Role of Family/Friend Social Support in Diabetes Self-Management for Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes: http://pubs.sciepub.com/jnh/2/1/1/index.html#

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