The relationship between individuals and their group is typically dynamic, involving an appropriate partnership and collaboration approach. Therefore, a model of government that encourages citizens to coexist ethically involves the social realm in all environments. In order to maintain a healthy social life, democratic theory incorporates a collection of principles such as the balance of authority, constitutional government, and voting patterns in compliance with the ethical norms of society (Moseley, 2012). Plato and Aristotle lay the foundation of political theory as they were major figures on the social balance of power problems. Plato as a political philosopher examines the social organization in terms of judicial arrangements that mitigate deviant behaviors in society. The purpose of politics in a state was to set a conventional way of life that is acceptable for governance. With this understanding, the philosopher Plato explores deviant regimes such as democracy, oligarchy, tyranny and monarchy as a means of controlling deviant citizens. The art of ruling in this form of governance follows a set of laws and the individuals permitted to rule should be trained in the craft of leadership (Brennan & Buchanan, 2008).
The modes of selecting a leader in each of the deviant regimes are different with democracy following a constitutional voting pattern while monarchy allows leaders to be from a royal group. The law in the state is the form of evaluating good and bad behavior and the leaders are the custodians of the governing constitution. The dialogues by Plato about the law were based on the principle of moderation in a community based system where power is acquired from the people and managed by the few elites in leadership.
Aristotle a philosophical student of Plato was also interested in politics and governance as a controversial thinker writing treaties that went beyond community institutions. The view of Aristotle on the society was more people based rather than focusing on the leading regimes. In the political evaluation of Aristotle, ethics plays a major role on society with the consideration being on how a person should live along other people. The purpose of political philosophy in this argument was to serve good to the highest number of people. The law ascribed to by the society should, therefore, be ethically acceptable to the entire community or at least the majority of the people.
The form of governance under this philosophical understanding is, therefore, democratic with some aspects of oligarchy. The classical view of Aristotle is significant to modern forms of governance since many republics in the world subscribe to the majority opinion. The people in a state, hereby, air their opinion about the country and the majority has their way as the minority has their say (List & Valentini, 2016). The treatment of politics in this kind of set up emphasizes on leaders sharing an opinion on the country with the majority that votes according to the constitution to give power to the rulers.
According to the two philosophers discussed above, their description of political philosophy is unique in that it views institutions and republics at the top and the bottom in form of leaders and followers. The relation between the leaders and the subjects is, however, variant in every generation since the establishment of the philosophical ideologies by critical thinkers of the historic period up to date. The existence of human beings in different regions of the world, therefore result to establishment of political institutions that would otherwise not exist without the social nature of people.
Brennan, G., & Buchanan, J. M. (2008). The reason of rules: Constitutional political economy.
List, C., & Valentini, L. (2016). The methodology of political theory. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology, 525-554.
Moseley, A. (2012). Political Philosophy: Methodology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 29 September 2017, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/polphil/