Childhood and Infancy Biological & Psychological Development

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Developments in infancy and childhood include physical, biological, emotional and psychological changes that a person experiences from birth to puberty. Such modifications are defined as the process by which a person moves from being dependent on a stage in which he/she is able to enjoy some freedom. Because in the future, even occurrence and genetics are connected to individual personality, the study of childhood and childhood development includes the study of human genetic makeup about their environment (Zastrow, Charles & Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013). Biologically and psychologically, individuals become mature. This essay describes some of the challenges that children who are mentally challenged might come across when they socialize with their peers who are intellectually upright and also the factors that are always considered to tell whether a child is mentally average or mentally challenged.
How Mike might feel in his relationship with his peers
Self-recognition in human developments usually takes place between nine months and two years. At this period, most children may intend to rub their nose when a mirror is positioned right in front of them an indication that they have begun to understand themselves.
When Mike compares himself with his friends in class or any environmental surrounding, he feels inferior (Zastrow, Charles & Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013).Language development and cognitive skills make enable people to develop their sense of humanity and dignity. Those individuals will be in a position to describe themselves while still very young even below four years for some people. Usually, at this tender age, the children can express themselves with some of the things that they possess or what see around. For example, in case they are not first born in their families, they will be able to talk about them regularly, their parents, what they usually eat for supper, things that their parents bring them while they are from work. This behavior is as well can be extended to the class where they meet with different individuals from different backgrounds (Zastrow, Charles & Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013).
The environment also plays a critical role in self- recognition when individuals cognitive abilities to those of the same surrounding For instance when pupils who are in the same class as Mike can memorize some mathematics or songs provided for by their teacher which Mike cannot able to memorize like his peers. As a result, Mike will feel inferior and will not learn comfortably in class.
Human beings are social creatures, and anyone would wish to socialize with their friends or associates. Since those children with intelligence disability mostly value socialization, Mike would as well be in a position to like to socialize with his peers and neighbors (Zastrow, Charles & Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013). Research shows that individuals with mental disability possess many friends than those people who are mentally upright.
Integrating Mike into the neighborhood
Mike parents need to accept that our peers play a vital role in shaping our characters while we are still young. Mike parents therefore since thy understand him better, they should provide him with a plate-form through which he is free to socialize with his peers from the neighborhood without necessarily limiting him. For instance, the parents should not buy him things like electronic toys which will keep him indoors. Since he is mentally disabled, the parents should allocate him more time which he can use to guide him in understanding more skills to enable him freely interact with others The parents need to be very clear on their expectations with the boy. The parents should also be able to identify factors which might promote Mike’s relationship to the neighborhood and embrace them accordingly.
Individuals need one another for their survival. The friends should realize that disability is not inability. In this case, Mike should be seen as a slow learner and not necessarily a fool or stupid. The duration he takes to understand concepts is what creates the difference between him and his peers since he takes relatively longer time than his peers. Neighbors, therefore, need to present task to him step by step through demonstrations to make him understand better. The friends should, however, prefer enrolling him in regular programs to help him adopt quickly.
Other Children
While in class or playing, they need to understand that Mike is a slow learner who would need constant reminders and even demonstrating to him some complicated concepts slowly based on his understanding without necessarily underrating his abilities or neglecting him in their duties.
Mike himself
Mike should understand his condition and accept that people are different. Therefore he should appreciate himself the way he is and again be ready to socialize despite the challenges he may be undergoing. When he socializes with various people, he would be able to realize his talent and practice it daily basis.

Kenji and Chaniqwa developmental profiles
While considering development profiles, Chanigwa and Kenji appear to be just normal. At the age of two years, the child should be in a position to feed itself though with slight assistance from the mother or the guardian, support themselves on the objects that they come across as they try to walk, they should be able to join their peers alongside playing with them or simply play by them. In as much as they play, they should be able to learn turn taking skills correctly. They can enjoy a book by only looking at the pictures and funny drawings and as well defend some things that they are not willing to share (Zastrow, Charles &Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013). They should also be in a position to use no- verbal communication skills. At this age, children should also be in a position to wave their hands to show goodbye and shake their hands to show refusal or ‘NO,’ say the names of the people whom they are familiar with and not being uncomfortable in the presence of strangers. These important moves are shown by Kenji through her ability to seek for support on objects on a trial to walk.
At the age of four years, the child should be able to either walk or run and be in the position to play in a group together with other kids. They should be able to make proper use of toilets on their own. They can play with a bicycle, identify common animal sounds and should be in a position to speak short but clear sentences (Zastrow, Charles &Kirst-Ashman Karen, 2013). At this stage, they should be able to dress except the shoelace, buttoning the shirt and even putting on a belt on their own. Finally, they should be in the position to answer some obvious questions correctly. Change is very active. She can jump; skip to communicate in a substantial vocabulary though still may make some grammatical error. This is a confirmation that she is growing while healthy.

Zastrow, Charles and Kirst-Ashman Karen (2013). Understanding human behavior and the social environment.9th Edition, Cengage Learning.

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