People make decisions each day and adapt accordingly. Choosing and managing is not a natural act, and it seems more complicated, particularly if people want to alter something about themselves. Self-control is the ability to adjust one’s reactions in order to bring them into line with norms such as beliefs, principles, morals, and social expectations. Self-control is vital because it lets us make the right choices and also gives us the right pursuit of life. Self-control may also be a small alteration or a major improvement. Small changes can make a difference in the quality of life. Behavior change requires the systematic application the principles of learning and various techniques to promote external or internal actions. Behavioral changes can lead to alterations and development of social skills with confidence and humor. For example, confidence can spur the need for more significant achievement in a chosen career. People usually find themselves unable to change their behavior, intelligence, or personality when they grow up, but depending on their mindset, change is still attainable during adulthood (please leave blank here, I’ll cite.) According to Adesso, Vargas, and Siddall, they had a research with the young adult average age of 19.75, and they have found that people can change behavior even when they grow up. There are two types of mindset, fixed mindset and growth mindset, people who have fixed mindset think people born with the ability and it cannot be changed, and people with a growth mindset believe abilities can be changed over time and develop (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). Change is a gradual process and doesn’t come instantaneously. Hence it requires a couple of steps.
To change behavior without a definite plan will lead a failed attempts hence there is need to consider setting goals and thinking about plans and how to accomplish them. The first step involves goal setting, i.e., establishing specific reference points, or desired end states then people need to monitor their progress which is goal monitoring (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). Goal monitoring involves the consideration of potential constraints and available resources for obtaining success (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). A goal is operational, it includes activities directed toward goal achievement, and it needs two processes which discern which actions are most likely to yield success and reassess which actions are expected to yield success (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). In these three methods, people can draw ahead of their plans and help to avoid losing their goal when they try to change their behavior.
Once people decided what to change and their goal, the next required action is a decision on how to measure their behavior. Behavioral dimension is the characteristics of behavior that can be observable measured (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). People need to observe their behavior to change and achieve their goal. There are examples of frequency, quality, or duration; for frequency, it is suitable for counting rates of behavior (please leave blank here, I’ll cite).
An antecedent, behaviors, and consequences are essential to this study. Antecedents are stimuli, environment, or circumstances that precede a behavior and consequence it is the behavior that either strengthens or weakens future behavior (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). We need to understand the concept of ABC behavior in the course of the project. Once we observe antecedent, proper behavior is done, and the consequence is judging either strengthen or weakens the behavior. The consequence has four different categories, positive reinforcement (R+), negative reinforcement (R-), positive punishment (P+), and negative punishment (P-). The reinforcement means an increase in the future behavior; punishment implies a decrease in the future behavior, positive means addition of a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus, and negative means removal of the unpleasant or pleasant stimulus. For example, R+ means an addition of a pleasant stimulus that increases in the future behavior.
Every element above is essential, but a schedule of reinforcement is necessary too and should not be forgotten. Schedule of reinforcement is the response requirement that must be met obtain reinforcement (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). There are four types of schedule of reinforcement, fixed interval (FI), variable interval (VI), fixed ratio (FR), and variable ratio (VR) (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). Interval means time, ratio implies work, fixed means set amount of, and variable means a variable amount of (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). For example, I used FR for this project because I set amount of work.
If people know their baseline of the project, they need treatment to improve their behavior. People are weak at the sight; they need to see their improvement and give selves a little gift will help to achieve their goal. People need to set up their tokens, banks, backup reinforcement and response costs. A token economy can help to do that; it is a system of individual reinforcement of target behaviors to strengthen a desirable behavior that occurs too infrequently in a structured environment and token is something delivered to a person immediately after a desirable behavior (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). Target behavior is the behavior that people are desirable to change. The token has to be something that can be seen or touchable. I decided my bank is an A4 sized plain paper where I put my stickers. Whenever I do my target behavior three times or if I bite my hangnails four times then I have to return my stickers to cache. Backup reinforcement is required as a physical material gift for a better future. It gives them the pleasurable feeling of success, so it is a good memory for another challenge. I will buy a t-shirt, and this is my backup reinforcement. It is easy to change if we earn or lose stickers too easy, so it should not be difficult to obtain stickers and easy to lose stickers so that we would give up quickly (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). I set my response costs like, I will earn stickers when I do my target behavior three times and lose a sticker (FR 3) when I do interfering behavior four times.
A behavioral deficit is desirable behaviors you’re not doing enough of and wish to increase, and I feel like I needed to improve my desirable behaviors in a bid to decrease my biting hangnails behaviors (please leave blank here, I’ll cite). For this project, I decided to change my behavior to clasped my hands tightly together instead biting hangnails. According to Klatte & Deardorff (1981), an adult who is biting their nails feels more anxious than non-nail biters. A college student seems to have a little more anxiety, like studying or responsibilities, are following them. The above notion is the reason college students tend to bite their nails easily. According to Coleman & McCalley (1948) had a research on 1000 college students, more than half of student have experience of nail-biting, and it is worse when they are stressed or feel more anxiety. The goal of this project is I clasped my hand whenever I need to suppress my willingness of biting hangnails. I can monitor my progress toward a goal when I see that I write a lot of activity of target behavior on paper or number of a sticker is increased.
I usually bit my nails and hangnails; however, I needed to reduce this behavior and willing to increase my target behavior now on. I have defined my target behavior; I will clasp my hands tightly together to suppress my willingness of biting hangnails. I am going to use frequency as my behavioral dimension, and I will count as one if I clasped my hands together. The behavior change will be demonstrated if the number of time I hold my hands clasped tightly together is increased during the day of this project; being relaxed or moderate stress leads to engaging target behavior and makes me feel more proud.