Ancient Civilizations Story

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The main function of writing in Mesopotamia states was to facilitate administrative bureaucracy. Momentous excavations recovered in Northern Syria indicated a prehistoric verbal exchange revolution. From the discovery of the sixth-millennium, writing material contained seals and tokens of bullae. A theoretical approach to this is that an administrative manipulate superseded any other activities and managed aspects such as trade and labor wages. Hence, it used to be a medium to regulate relationships within states and households as well. As such, manipulate of the economy from schools to labor to agricultural ventures allowed the directors to segregate regions based on their capacities to make a contribution to the economy. In the Uruk period, production and land use were at its highest with trade in commodities such as barley and other cereals were thriving. Hence, the division of states based on their production capabilities as well as labor was initiated to control households and trade (Lamberg-Karlovsky 62).

The fundamental difference between writing in Mesopotamia and industrial states was that numbers were used to count particular goods such as grain, jars of oil and units of labor. According to Schmandt-Besserat (147), each category of selected products was counted differently such as grains in which big and small units were calculated using cones and spheres. However, with industrial states, numerals were utilized for all goods and animals as well as units of labor. Additionally, writing in Mesopotamia was to influence some form of bureaucracy among the people where the elite was only allowed to read and write (Woods 33). Only the elite has been authorized to document about gods and counts on harvests which only moved from the palace to the temple and back without commoners touching the writings (Schmandt-Besserat 148).

Work Cited

Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. “Tokens and writing: the cognitive development.” Scripta 1 (2009): 145-154. Print.

Lamberg-Karlovsky, Carl C. “To write or not to write.” Culture through objects: ancient Near Eastern studies in honour of PRS Moorey (2003): 59-75. Print.

Woods, Christopher. “The earliest Mesopotamian writing.” INVENTIONS OF WRITING IN THE ANCIENT MIDDLE EAST AND BEYOND (2010): 33. Print.

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