Socrates studies things in the sky and below the ground, according to the first fee. As a result of his speculations concerning heaven and earth, he is a wrongdoer. It is reasonable to assume that this is the source of the accusation of disbelief in gods. Rather than attributing these events to gods, he seeks a natural explanation for geological and celestial phenomena. Another allegation leveled against him is that he has manipulated the youth by instilling in them a critical mindset. It is important to remember that Socrates did not draw their attention since he interrogated rich people in the marketplaces. It is possible that rarely accepted support from them. In any case, by questioning them and the authority, he has significantly impact on the youth. Also, he charged with impiety which means he does not believe in gods whom the entire states hold responsible for whatever happens and believes in. Instead, Socrates seeks an explanation from natural processes. As such, he sets a wrong example by teaching people not to believe in goods as he portrays himself as an atheist.
Response to each of these charges
In response to the claim that he studies earth below and sky, Socrates replies by contending that the accusation is slander as he continued asserts that he does possess any special knowledge about any below the earth or in the sky. As he supports his defense, he related it to Oracle Delphi story, an individual perceived to provide a voice to Greek god Apollo which ends in the claims that most people think [they] know something when they do not (Chaffee 27). This is what makes most people dislike him. Nevertheless, he continues to hold that part of his life is to question others which form one of the ways he services the god (Chaffee 27). Moreover, he repeatedly refers to the idea that he has a duty to Apollo to question the knowledge of people and points that he did not receive any payment for this service and present his state of poverty as proof (Chaffee 30). Finally, he defends himself by contending that god gave him a divine sign that cautioned him to avert actions that would result in doing something wrong.
Further, he responds to the accusation that he misleads youth in two distinct approaches. First, he tries to demonstrate that the charge brought to him b Meletus is frivolous based on the contention that he does not agree with the plausible example of how a creature can become corrupted. According to the plaintiffs, the Socrates is the only person who did not benefit the youth yet this is clearly plausible. As a result, he replies by citing corruption cases, for example, that of horse by a bad owner. He shows that only a few people benefit them as most are corrupt. The second argument rendered is that in case he corrupted the youth, this was not deliberate which presents Meletus with two possibilities: Either I do not corrupt the young or, if I do, it is unwillingly, and you are lying in either case (Chaffee 29). If did he is guilty and if not he is innocent.
Finally, Socrates defends himself against the accusation of impiety directly by pointing that so far he had given proof that he believes in god Apollo who gives him divine signs and has spent his adult life serving him. He says, Clearly, if I convinced you by my supplication [to the god] to do violence to your oath of office, I would be teaching you not to believe that there are gods . This is far from being the case, gentlemen (Chaffee 32).
Examples of Fallacies Used by Socrates
One of the examples of fallacies used by Socrates occurs when he is sentenced to death. During this time he says that his daimon warns him when bad things happen, but this time it did not. Therefore, he did not consider being sentenced to death a bad thing. This is an instance of oversimplified cause fallacy. Just because his daimon did not warn him does not imply death should not be feared or is not a bad thing. Another example used attacks on a person also referred as ad hominem which the Socrates disapproved others argument by attacking them, consistency of information given and circumstances.
Determining whether Socrates was Guilty
Socrates was not guilty because although it is commonly understood that Greek invested democracy, it was not was people know it. First, it is imperative to note that the charges he faces appear ridiculous but back, and then they were genuinely felt to serve the greater good. Based on this contention, it can be argued that Socrates was unfortunate victim of a vicious political vendetta. At the same time, Greek people were extremely religious and believed gods protected cities. Socrates was an unconventional thinker, and these are the reason most people did not agree with him. As such, it cannot be denied that he suffered greater injustice by being found guilty and put on trial in the first place.
Chaffee, John. Philosopher’s Way: Thinking Critically about Profound Ideas+ Myphilosophykit Student Access. Prentice Hall, 2008.