about illegal immigration

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While illegal immigrants may be considered credible and dependable due to the benefits they bring to the US, it is critical to understand the unintended consequences that translate into tangible problems such as increased competition for the limited unskilled job opportunities, increased pressure on the economy by using free social services such as healthcare, social services, and so on. Illegal immigrants deliver cheap labor for the American unskilled jobs hence serving the American society

Illegal immigrants contribute to the social, political, and economic development of the US

Historical circumstances guarantee for the stay of the illegal immigrants in America

Addressing the opposing points

Increased competition for the limited unskilled job opportunities

Increased pressure on the economy by utilizing free social services including healthcare, social security, and education

The growing crime rate perpetuated by unauthorized citizens in the country.

CONCLUSION………………………………………….….……..….8-9

Reiterating the thesis statement

Creating the bridge between the proposing and the opposing sides of the arguments

Discussing the solutions to the problems objectively

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………….…….10

WORKS CITED ………………………………………………………..11

Foreign citizens who acquire legal admittance to the US and stay in the country for more than the period provided for, as well as those who enter the country without the permission of the government violet the US immigration laws, and hence they are termed illegal immigrants as explains Garrett (2014). According to Krogstad and Passel (2014), the number of illegal immigrants has been steadily rising in America since the first and the Second World War onset. Nevertheless, for the first time in history, the 2015 data on unauthorized immigrants was reported to have declined, compared to the 2009 figures following the recession crisis. Moreover, immigrants from other regions the world over went higher about their Mexican counterparts, a peculiar shift in statistics that was atypical. While in 2009 there were 11.3 illegal immigrants in the US, in 2015, this number had reduced to 11 million people. Even though this figure would later rise to 11.3 million in 2016, the difference has not been considered as significant by Krogstad and Passel (2014), considering that the research was done utilizing a small sample size characterized with a relatively huge margin of error. While the Mexicans had dominated a clear majority for the past decade and beyond among the American illegal migrants, however, in 2016, the Mexicans were approximated at 50 percent of the population, have declined in number from 6.4 million to 5.6 million in 2009 and 2015 respectfully (Krogstad and Passel 16). Illinois, New York, California, New Jersey and Florida are the states with the majority of illegal migrants, accounting for 59 percent of the total. Nevertheless, it is not only imperative to outline that between 2009 and 2014 the number of illegal immigrants decreased in Kansas, Georgia, Alabama, Illinois, South Carolina, California as well as Nevada, but also vital to note that these reductions are alleged to the reduced number of unauthorized Mexican immigrants. As opposed to the small number (41 percent) of immigrants who had lived in America for more than ten years in the US by 2005, the figure had risen significantly to a wobbling 66 percent by 2014. Nevertheless, those who have lived in the country illegally for less than five years are declining in number steadily, having been estimated at barely 14 percent in 2014 (Krogstad and Passel 17). While the illegal immigrants could be considered as both credible and dependable because of the benefits they bring to the US, on the contrary, it is critical to comprehend the unintended consequences that translate into tangible problems like increased competition for the limited unskilled job opportunities, increased pressure on the economy by using free social services including healthcare, social security, and education as well as the growing crime rate perpetuated by unauthorized citizens in the country.

Illegal immigrants in America are very beneficial considering the hardworking efforts they deliver in performing essential tasks that do not require a skilled workforce. Indeed, as opposed to all preceding generations, the contemporary American communities have embraced a culture of paying people to clean their houses, mow lawns, while paying for essential services cheaply and embracing diversity in culture, a desire and need which has been made valid by immigrants who are willing to deliver such services at affordable cost as argues (Park 169). Furthermore, most Americans in the twenty-first century do not like the idea of doing unskilled jobs like babysitting, washing and cleaning houses, or even looking after crops in the farms. If this were to happen, then their employers will be forced to pay more, not less than the federal minimum wage at least plus other pertinent services. As opposed to this, illegal immigrants are able and willing to do these jobs at relatively lower cost, hence their vital importance in the American society, as they contribute a lot toward building the economy. On the other hand, a study by Park (2006) confirmed that illegal immigrants have been very helpful by offering to do jobs that Americans have the ability to do but they are not willing to tender their services because of the working conditions including payment rates. However, an argument that Americas cannot do certain jobs in entirety is misleading, because in reality there is no task Americans cannot perform, rather, perhaps it has more to do with the attached benefits and the aesthetic values than the capacity to deliver (Peri and Sparber 136). A good example is that currently, many Americans across all races are doing jobs like working in the sewers, cleaning the septic tanks, as well as working in the sanitation industries together with the legal migrants. Furthermore, the illegal immigrants need to be given the amnesty of staying in the country, based on their hard work as they put efforts to making both theirs and the Americans’ lives better (Stimpson, Wilson, and Su 1317). Indeed, provided the working conditions continue to be decent and the country still needs a more unskilled workforce, unauthorized immigrants should be taken positively in the American society, and be embraced to feel welcome in contributing to building America.

The other reason why illegal immigrants should be allowed to continue working in America and earn a living is that of natural understanding, considering that both the historical and present circumstances create room and compel illegal immigrants to be what they are perceived to be like; unauthorized immigrants. The American government imported cheap labor from Mexico following the aftermath of both the first and the Second World War. Five years after the culmination of the Second World War, an amnesty was extended to five thousand Mexicans by the American government to live in the US (Stimpson, Wilson, and Su 1317). This created room and enthusiasm for many immigrants to flow into the country and resistance was overcome by immigrants entering the US illegally. Furthermore, currently, many immigrants in America work hard to send their meager earnings back to their home countries, which makes a significant change in the lives of their siblings. Therefore, their peers as well are tempted to sneak into America and get such opportunities and end destitute lives characterized by abject poverty. Indeed, even American citizens can as well imagine and realize that in similar situations, where neighbors and friends go to a foreign land full of opportunities and work hard to change lives back home, one would not resist the temptation of him or her maneuvering to get there and work hard to get the hero status in their motherland, as was argued out by one of the Mexican illegal immigrant interviewed by Peri and Sparber (2009). Provided their act of being in the country illegally is the only core crime, a victimless act that hurts nobody or takes away a life of any American citizen but hard work to earn a living and build America, then unauthorized immigrants are morally and ethically justified to seek fortunes and realize the American dream, whereby everybody who works hard in America is bound to becoming successful. After all, America is referred to as The Melting Pot, meaning a home for immigrants and constructive diversity (Fitzgerald, Curtis, and Corliss 478). On the contrary, even though the hard working person who struggles to make a living has a place in America, it does not make it any lesser crime, to compel anybody to imagine that illegal immigration is then a trivial irresponsibility under the American law.

On the contrary, it is true that illegal immigrants take away job opportunities from American citizens, but it is not realistic to argue that Americans cannot do unskilled jobs. However, it is correct that most Americans are unwilling to do jobs at relatively small benefits, unlike the immigrants. Indeed, if unauthorized immigrants are not allowed inside of the country, then the only option will be Americans to do these jobs, and the employers will be obliged to pay not below the minimum wage, hence creating more jobs for American citizens (LeMay 134). Therefore, illegal immigrants frequently cost the employment opportunities not only for the Americans who do not offer skilled labor but also for the legal migrants who do casual jobs. A good example is in the 1980s, whereby the Mexican legal migrants were unionized and were earning $4.00 in every single hour. Nevertheless, when the illegal immigrants began to enter the country in large numbers, they offered cheap labor in the tomato farms in California, a situation that led to the loss of jobs for their unionized counterparts, as they agreed to work at $3.55 per hour. The skilled legal immigrants were forced outside of the tomato farms in Son Diego as an eventuality (LeMay 66). Unfortunately, the inception of cheap labor from illegal migrants is significantly hurting the jobless Americans. Most American citizens cannot compete with the illegal laborers in the unskilled jobs like gatekeeping, janitors, restaurant attendants, security guards, farm workers, construction sites, taxi drivers, as well as child caring. Even though the proponents of illegal immigrant labor delivery argue that America is a capitalist country wherein competition is a fair experience toward making it in life, it is critical to consider that Americans have unfair competition, because it could be logical only if the immigrants were legally incepted into the US, argues Garrett (2014).

Social security, healthcare, and education are social services in America offered and sustained by the taxpayer, hence illegal immigrants who utilize but do not pay tax for these services hurt the US economy as an eventuality. The increased number of immigrants now estimated at 12.3 million people, is benefiting from these services at the expensive of the American citizenry. In 1992 for instance, five states alone accounted for 80 percent expenditure on the illegal immigrants, which is the taxpayers’ funds. The federal, local, and state costs were approximated at $2.9 billion in the very year in the states of Illinois, New York, California, Texas, and Florida. The economic burden has since escalated to $10 billion by the year 2002 and doubled further in the last financial year as confirms LeMay (2007). Arizona reported four times more the cost of hospital expenditure in five medical facilities in 2013 compared to the 1982 cost estimated at the expense of $4.4 million. Colorado admits six illegal immigrant children in public school daily, valued at the cost of $600 per every admission, whereas Washington DC has 1,380 children of the illegal immigrants that have put significant pressure on the state`s economy. It is estimated by Meyer (2010) that for the subsequent two decades, the American taxpayer will part with $345 billion if the Mexicans illegally in the country are allowed to access social services. The most economic burden comes in when illegal immigrants sire kids in America, and those children are automatically American citizens to benefit from the Aid to Families with Dependent Children with their parents as the guardians, hence benefiting from the social services illegally.

Furthermore, illegal immigrants have diverted the American social justice and homeland security efforts and expenditure to their focus at the expense of the law-abiding Americans, following the escalating criminal activities they perpetuate. Approximately 60 percent of cocaine in California is smuggled by illegal immigrants, and the mounting homicides in Arizona are attributed to the Mexican illegal immigrants. Many American dollars are lost to incarcerate criminal immigrants, most of whom belong to the Salvadoran gang across 28 states. Currently, the crime rate in the American border cities has escalated, most of which are related to drug abuse. According to Meyer (2010), there are tens of horrific scenarios reported daily, with the police and the criminal gangs engaging in perpetual shootings in American border cities. Killings and kidnapping are heinous crimes on the rise. Nevertheless, the unauthorized immigrants are reported to be committing these injustices against their illegal immigrant counterparts, whose presence in the country is compromised both under the law and the social, ethical standing. However, it should be understood that if this trend gets out of hand and the drug barons begin to kidnap and kill American citizens, the situation could be dire across the social domain.

Because of the many circumstantial challenges, illegal immigration has brought in the American society, together with the multiple benefits realized across decades, it is critical to consider that this issue needs to be solved in a just, rational, and impartial manner for all parties involved to enjoy their positions. Illegal immigrants do not need to be accepted to be in America illegally, rather, they ought to be guided, admonished, and advised on the need to entering the country legally, which attracts many benefits; including better remuneration, not below the minimum wage and access to social services like healthcare, education, and social security. However, if this strategy fails, then the American government can as well compel the home countries to the unauthorized immigrants in the US to pay for their needs abroad so that the American law abiding citizens are not overburdened unfairly in tax payments. On the other hand, rather than severely punishing the foreign governments in a controversial and contentious issue like immigration, which could compromise the American foreign policy, perhaps it could be better to reinforce the border patrol and security at airports to tame the illegal immigrants who sneak into the country. Ideally, a negotiation can be reached between the government and the American employers that they hire Americans and pay them fairly, not below the minimum wage even in the unskilled labor segment, or else hire the illegal immigrants and be judged in the court of law. This would help in reducing injustices against immigrants who are paid lower than what they deserve, tame the unauthorized immigrants who enter the country primarily to secure jobs, while creating opportunities for both the legal migrants and the American citizens in the unskilled labor segment. On the one hand, legalized immigrants will get better pay and would later benefit from the social services whose tax they will have contributed to, on the contrary, the Americans will continue to have able and willing workers in large numbers, both the citizens and the legalized immigrants, and the Americans will not be burdened to pay tax for foreign nationals, which is a win-win scenario.

Annotated Bibliography

Fitzgerald, J., K. a. Curtis, and C. L. Corliss. “Anxious Publics: Worries About Crime and Immigration.” Comparative Political Studies 45.4, 2012, PP. 477–506.

This article discusses the relationship between the crime rates in America and the immigration proportions across the country. The interviews carried out by the researcher on the local citizens reveal a lot of anxiety among the people over the increased rate of illegal immigrations. Hence the essence of consternation of immigration as a predictor of security and social stability. Furthermore, the author gives a multifaceted objective approach on the effects of illegal immigration on the economic, political, social, and cultural segments in America, both at the federal and the local levels. This is particularly the best source for this research because the researcher goes ahead to extrapolate the relationship between the economy and the crime rate as is contributed to by the illegal immigrants in the US. Moreover, comparison of similar data from continental Europe reveals that the same effects cut across the entire region of Western Europe. Even though this article is long and needs more time to read and understand, the detailed research the author makes by citing other scholarly articles makes it an authentic and reliable source.

Garrett, Terence Michael. “Market Spectacle: Immigration Policy along with the US/Mexico Border.” International Journal of Social Economics 41.1, 2014, PP. 32–41.

The author of this source is very particular, as he addresses exclusively the Mexican illegal immigrants in America and the challenges they pose. The source outlines the issue on the economy, insecurity, lost job opportunities as well as compromised social service delivery due to the escalating number of Mexican migrants since the 1960s to date. Furthermore, the author proposes solutions to these challenges, which shades more light to the government policy and legal as well as political stakeholders` accountability.

Krogstad, Jens Manuel, and Jeffrey S. Passel. “5 Facts about Illegal Immigration in the U.S.” Pew Research Center 2014, PP. 16–20.

This article gives the five critical facts about illegal immigration in the US for the last five decade to date. The author analyses statistically the facts and figure about the unauthorized immigrants, and offers the likely effects that trigger the decrease of the corresponding surge of immigrants into America. Furthermore, this source becomes even more useful when the author related the effects of the illegal immigrants on the American economy, security, and political landscape, as well as their future bearing if the trend continues. The only challenge is perhaps the technical diction used. However, the source remains to be indispensable considering the many references the author cites to reinforce his arguments.

LeMay, Michael. “Illegal Immigration a Reference Handbook.” ABC-CLIO’s, Contemporary world issues series, 2007.

This book talks about the health care of the illegal immigrants and the whole population of immigrants in the US across history. The author argues that the inclusion of the immigrants in the American healthcare framework is essential. However, he as well notes that there are significant challenges with the documentation and the authentication of most immigrants. Furthermore, the effects of illegal immigration have caused social discourse, an experience that has led to the unsettled attention in the public domain, questioning the eligibility of the illegal immigrants in the first place. Therefore, this source is very critical because it links the illegal immigrants to the social benefits in America, including healthcare, education, and social security.

Meyer, Maria Melanie. “The Undermining of the American Dream Through Illegal Immigration – Maria Melanie Meyer – Google Books.” GRIN Publishing, 2010.

The author of this book discusses the American dream and how it has essentially been abused by immigrants across millennia. The source notes that the American dream justifies anyone who is on the American soil and works hard as a law abiding citizen to achieve their success in life. Nevertheless, the book cautions the illegal immigrants who misinterpret this argument to make it look like even if they are in the country illegally and hence they are not law abiding, the can just go for their dreams while infringing on the rights of others and not adhering to the law. Therefore, this source challenges not only the illegal immigrants but also the American citizens to focus on the need for being law abiding, self-conscious, and mindful enough in their pursuit of the American dream.

Park, Y. Constructing Immigrants: A Historical Discourse Analysis of the Representations of Immigrants in US Social Work, 1882-1952. Vol. 6, 2006, PP. 1-349.

This source offers related information to the illegal immigrants in America between the year 1882 and 1952 in America. The social welfare of the immigrants is very intrinsically bound to that of the Americans. It is either the services are provided for all people in America, or the discrimination between the citizens who are law abiding and the immigrants could compromise the integrity of the whole system. Furthermore, the challenges caused by illegal migrants in the country when it comes to social welfare are discussed. A lot of money is spent by both the federal and site governments in settling the debts of the foreign citizens who are illegally in the country, and this by extension affects the financial stability of the country.

Peri, Giovanni, and Chad Sparber. “Task Specialization, Immigration, and Wages.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1.3, 2009, PP. 135–69.

This article argues on the line of the negative effects illegal immigrants cause in the job market. The unskilled illegal immigrants from Mexico and Canada are put in the spotlight by the author, whereby he argues that because of their willingness to work at relatively lower wages than the American citizens, the employer gives them priority over the Americas who are jobless, hence threatening the job market of the US citizenry. Nevertheless, the author asserts that most Americans do skilled jobs, and therefore the immigrants are very imperative in fostering the American economy by working with low wages, delivering most tasks, especially in the agricultural sector, while paying taxes as well. Considering that the Americans pursue office work and jobs that are communication-based, the illegal immigrants are therefore justified enough to work of physical, manual, and energy demanding faculties. Nevertheless, the author agrees that the non-educated Americans, therefore, are at the mercy of the immigrants, as they too need those unskilled jobs for a living. This source is especially critical because it offers accurate and brief information on the relationship between the skilled labor, unskilled labor, and the effects of illegal immigrants on both the job market as well as on the American economy.

Stimpson, Jim P., Fernando A. Wilson, and Dejun Su. “Unauthorized Immigrants Spend Less than Other Immigrants and Us Natives on Health Care.” Health Affairs 32.7, 2013, PP. 1313–1318.

This article is particularly very crucial for this study because it addresses the issue of how immigrants overburden the American taxpayer and hurt the economy as an eventuality. Many immigrants do not pay tax, except for the expenditure fear they tender while purchasing product and services within their stay in the country. However, most of them, both adult and their children, often benefit from education and healthcare services without having paid for the services. This source brings out the real picture of why justice has to be done by addressing the illegal immigrant’s issue to quell the problem.

Works Cited

Fitzgerald, J., K. a. Curtis, and C. L. Corliss. “Anxious Publics: Worries About Crime and Immigration.” Comparative Political Studies 45.4, 2012, PP. 477–506.

Garrett, Terence Michael. “Market Spectacle: Immigration Policy along with the US/Mexico Border.” International Journal of Social Economics 41.1, 2014, PP. 32–41.

Krogstad, Jens Manuel, and Jeffrey S. Passel. “5 Facts about Illegal Immigration in the U.S.” Pew Research Center 2014, PP. 16–20.

LeMay, Michael. “Illegal Immigration a Reference Handbook.” ABC-CLIO’s, Contemporary world issues series, 2007.

Meyer, Maria Melanie. “The Undermining of the American Dream Through Illegal Immigration – Maria Melanie Meyer – Google Books.” GRIN Publishing, 2010.

Park, Y. Constructing Immigrants: A Historical Discourse Analysis of the Representations of Immigrants in US Social Work, 1882-1952. Vol. 6, 2006, PP. 1-349.

Peri, Giovanni, and Chad Sparber. “Task Specialization, Immigration, and Wages.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1.3, 2009, PP. 135–69.

Stimpson, Jim P., Fernando A. Wilson, and Dejun Su. “Unauthorized Immigrants Spend Less than Other Immigrants and Us Natives on Health Care.” Health Affairs 32.7, 2013, PP. 1313–1318.

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