a scaling study

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Research is an unavoidable exercise in our everyday lives because it aids in the comprehension of different phenomena of concern. The foundation of changes in our everyday lives is studied. This article draws on a thesis that was completed on adolescent pregnancy. People of various ages were asked a variety of questions about adolescent pregnancy in order to elicit their thoughts and opinions on the matter. It then analyzes the survey responses for each question to determine the pattern in the responses. Finally, the study paper considers how to improve the validity and efficiency of the questionnaire and general sample. Therefore, this report is useful to help in conducting the reliable information on the teenage pregnancy.
Analysis of the Questionnaire Responses
The questionnaire was administered to ten people represented the whole group of people of interest. The first question was about the gender of the respondent. The gender was evenly distributed between the male and the female in the society. Five respondents were male while the other five were women. The second question was about the age of the respondents. The ages of the ten respondents that participated in the survey were distributed in two categories. The first type was the teenagers’ group from 12 to 22 years, and the other was parents group from 45 to 75 years. The teenage category is affected directly by the subject while for the category of adults is believed to be parents of teenagers thus concerned with teenage pregnancy issue.
The third question aimed to establish what people think is the main cause of pregnancy. This was one of the root questions on the subject of teenage pregnancy. The responses brought out that pregnancy was due factors such as carelessness, as a way to retain their relationship with partners, accidents and due to curiosity. Various people had different views on the causes of the pregnancy. Most teenagers said that pregnancy comes accidentally while many adults argued that it was due to the curiosity of the teenagers. The fourth question was to establish whether teenage pregnancy had effects on the economic status of the teens. The responses were distributed evenly, and five people agreed that it had effects while the other five said that it did not have effects on their economic status.
The fifth question was a Likert scale which was used to measure how respondents related motherhood with age. Six respondents disagreed strongly with the statement that age does not affect how one can be a good mother. Two agreed with the statement while three had no opinion on the statement. Therefore, it shows that most people believe that age has effects on the motherhood. The sixth question was open ended to get people’s opinions on abortion. Five adults argued that abortion was bad and should be avoided. Three teenagers also had a similar opinion while two of them viewed abortion as normal and should be embraced. Lastly, was to get the respondents opinion on improving the survey. They suggested a longer questionnaire to get more of their opinions.
The Sample Characteristics
The survey aimed at establishing various aspects related to teenage pregnancy and parenthood. The people who are most concerned with teenage pregnancy are usually the teenagers themselves and also their parents. The sample quota for this survey considered these factors and therefore, focused on the two groups of people. The first one was between the age of 12 to 22 years who are teenagers affected directly by the subject matter. Five people from this category were considered. The second type is the adults who are believed to have children at the teenage stage. The balance and focus on the relevant group helped to increase the validity and also the reliability of the responses from the survey.
Regarding gender as one of the demographic factor of the sample, the survey considered both the male and the female at the equal ratio (five male and five female).. Therefore, the responses given were balanced and not prejudiced on a given gender in the society.
Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire
The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire are the most important aspects for the success of the survey. Usually, the validity of the questionnaire is the extent to which the study measures the aspects which it is intended to measure. This study adequately reflects the teenage pregnancy and parenthood which is the main aspect that it is designed to do, thus valid. The various types of validity are also considered in this questionnaire. These are the face validity, content validity, construct validity and the criterion validity (Creswell, 2012). These aspects are important for a valid questionnaire.
Face validity refers to the extent to which the instrument appears to measure the intended aspects at the physical level. Each question is related to the research objective thus valid. Content validity seeks to establish whether the questions cover the entire aspects required in the research. This questionnaire is valid and satisfies both the face and content validity, thus gives reliable information.
Reliability is also a critical aspect when administering questionnaires. It is usually the consistency or repeatability of the survey measure. This means that the questionnaire should be able to give the same results when administered under similar conditions. There are three most important aspects of concerns regarding the reliability. These are test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability. This questionnaire is reliable since it satisfies all these types of reliability.
How to Improve the Survey
It is always important to consider improvement in future similar studies. This entails identifying the current weaknesses and then working on them for improvement. One of the ways for delivering this type of information is through asking the respondents on what may be done for betterment. When applied when, these views from the respondents can significantly help in improving the reliability and validity of the information from the survey (Creswell, 2012).
Respondents were asked what they think could be done to this survey to make it better. Some respondents said that application of more open ended questions is likely to give them more opportunity to express their views without limit regarding the subject. Also, respondents said a regular administration of the questionnaires on the subject is likely to produce better reliable information. Besides the respondent’s views, it is also important as an interviewer to consider certain factors that are likely to improve the survey. These include rapport creation which makes respondents feel free enough to disclose the required information. Also, promptly is critical. Some respondents will not speak out themselves unless prompted. Therefore, these factors should be combined to give the best survey.

References
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Appendix
Questionnaire
Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood
1. Your Gender

2. Your Age …………………………
3. What do you think is the cause of teenage pregnancy?

4. Do you think teenage pregnancy affects the economic status of the society?

5. To what extend do you agree with the statement that age does not affect how one can be a good mother

6. What is your opinion on the abortion especially for teenagers
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. What do you think can be done to this survey to make it better in future?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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